In March 1953 the yang Soviet expert Mr. and Mrs. Krylov came to Yanchang to experiment on his scheme of increasing production by oil-well shooting. However the increase was accompanied by the continuous decrease of the well production and the severe damage of well casing, so the experiment was soon stopped.
Mr. Mosiev, Soviet adviser and specialist, then put another proposal to increase production: to employ gallery oil mining and situ combustion in oil reservoir. It was soon denied due to the low permeability and high water saturation of oil reservoir, where situ combustion could not be formed into the designed combustion.
Aother Soviet specialist Dr. Terfumok held that (1) Yanchang oil mine is a typical fractural oilfield, and the characteristic of distribution of stratum fracture should be studied. (2) It is most important to protect oil reservoir. Cable drilling (drill string free falling) is the best way for shallow wells and worthy as well. It can prevent the oil reservoir fracture from being jammed by mud which in turn pollutes the oil reservoir. (3) It might be better to employ oil reservoir fracturing technique than combustion technique.
Yongping section of refinery was set up by Yanchang Oilfield, and three distillation stills were moved there from Yanchang. It was put into production in October the same year, with the annual production of three thousand tons. In 1965 there are 12 normal pressure distillation stills in Yongping refinery, with ten tons of single still daily processing.
Drills were in urgent need in 1958 when the production was to be extended. To meet the urgent needs staff and workers in Yanchang Oilfield made the “Yan’an Brand” drill from timber on their own, imitating the American Star brand. The main parts of the machine were completely made of wood. The machine could drill to the depth of 140-150 meters. Yanchang Oilfield mainly used the “Yan’an Brand” which was gradually replaced by “chuxing” (hoe like) drills after 1959.
In November 1958 Yanchang Oilfield set up the first woman drilling crew in China - the Communist Youth League Woman Drilling Crew, which consisted of 23 members, 18 years of average age, with the youngest being 16. They learned quickly in their work and soon commanded the drilling technique. With “Yan’an Brand” drill, they refreshed the drilling record four times, and summed up such an excellent operating experience as “four things of diligence, three things of swiftness, four side watch, and three side hearing”. They completed the annual task within half a year, and dropped the drilling cost from 18 yuan per meter to 15 yuan per meter. The party committee of the mine nominated the crew as “red flag model” crew, and the “Sirengou” where they dilled well was nominated as “Hongqigou”.
Note: four diligences (turning trope, slacking rope, checking, and fishing sand), three things of swiftness (drilling ware change, fishing sand, drillpipe tripping), four side watch (the tightness of well rope, stability of derrick and drill, normality of transmission mechanism, fastness of screws and nuts in the various parts), and three side hearing (impact below, running of the sky-vehicle, transmission mechanism).
The oil production of Yanchang Oilfield broke through the pass of ten thousand tons. In severe shortage of mechanic equipment, staff and workers exploited the horse power to lift the oil up. A representative was Ma Shuye lifting group, which consisted of 9 workers including 5 apprentices. They took charge of 21 wells with monthly production quota 30 tons. To complete the task they groped for the oiling
laws of oil well, rationally adjusted the oil extraction cycle, and made every attempt to take the best advantage of potentiality of oil well. Driving carts, they got out early and returned home late, and never took rest until completed the task. In addition to solid hard working, they also applied genius. There was daily quota in a group, daily plan in a team. They also tried every possible means to increase productivity.
In 1959 they overfulfilled the task in every month, and completed the yearly plan of production ahead of schedule by two months. Ma Shuye was elected as an outstanding worker of Shaanxi province and attended the national conference of outstanding workers.